### Haolin will take you to understand the related knowledge of stepping motor: phase, line, polarity and stepping mode

Haolin will take you to understand the related knowledge of stepping motor: phase, line, polarity and stepping mode
This is not about the "subdivision" experiment of stepping motor, but about the basic concept of stepping motor and the three working modes of stepper motor -- single beat, double beat and single double beat. Now the programming of stepping motor generally uses special stepping motor driver chip (such as: L6219 chip). Let's talk about phase, line and polarity.
1： Line, phase and polarity
"Phase" means that the stepper motor has several coils (also called windings).
"Line" means that the stepper motor has several connection ports.
Polarity is divided into unipolar and bipolar. If the coil of a stepper motor can conduct electricity in both directions, the motor is bipolar. On the contrary, if the coil of the motor is only allowed to conduct unidirectional conduction, then the motor is unipolar.
If you know two of the three above, you can infer the third.
For example: five wire four phase stepping motor has 5 terminals and 4 coils. Since there are five terminals, that is, the number of connectors is odd, that is to say, one terminal is a common connector, so the conductive mode of its coil is only allowed to be unidirectional, that is, the stepping motor is unipolar. As shown in the figure below:
The four wire bipolar stepping motor has four terminals, and the conduction mode is allowed to be bidirectional.
Since there are four terminals and the conduction mode is bidirectional, the stepper motor is two-phase.
2、 Stepping mode of stepper motor: single beat, double beat, single and double beat
1. Single shot: (single four shot mode)
Single beat working mode means that only one coil is energized at a time, and the stepping motor is rotated by changing the coil that is energized each time.
Let's first talk about the five wire four phase stepping motor, assuming that its four coils are called a, B, C, D, then in the single beat mode, the power on mode of the coil is in turn: A, B, C, D;
Then the four wire bipolar stepper motor, assuming that its two coils are called a and B, then in the single beat mode, the coils are: A, B, - A, - B;
[note] A and B refer to the forward current of coils a and B, and - A and - B refer to the reverse current of coils a and B. Because the five wire four phase stepping motor can not pass the reverse current, only a, B, C, D.
Of course, all the above are just theories. Naturally, there are simple ways to memorize words
The following is a five wire four phase stepping motor:
The following is a four wire bipolar stepping motor:
2. Double beat: (double four beat working mode)
The working mode of double beat is: power on two coils at a time, and rotate the stepping motor by changing the electrified coil.
Five wire four phase stepper motor: in double beat mode, the power on mode of coil is ab, BC, CD, Da;
In the double beat mode, the power on mode of the four wire bipolar stepping motor is ab, B-A, - A-B, - BA;
It's easy to find out the rules.
3. Single and double (eight beat mode)
The working mode of single and double beat is that the working mode of single beat and that of double beat are carried out alternately.
Five wire four phase stepping motor: A, AB, B, BC, C, CD, D, Da;
Four wire bipolar stepping motor: A, AB, B, B-A, - A, - A-B, - B, - BA;
As long as you compare the picture I drew above, it will be easy to remember.
Finally, step angle:
Step angle is generally used in the advanced application of stepping motor, we Beginners (I am also a beginner) generally do not need to consider, I just want to explain more comprehensive, plus the step angle, you are interested can see the above picture.
Source: fence